Tag: future

American Horticultural Society faces an uncertain future

On paper at least, the American Horticultural Society, founded in 1922, should be poised to move into its second century as a major player in the green world, an organization with a compelling mission and a rosy future.

The pandemic has reinforced the importance of gardens and gardening, reflected in surging vegetable seed sales and the desire of people to visit public gardens and other green spaces to find succor in anxious times.



COVID-19 aside, public gardens offer enormous potential to connect an ever urbanizing population to a planet in environmental crisis and to bring together diverse groups at a time of social, political and economic unrest.

But the AHS, located at its pastoral 25-acre property on the Potomac, River Farm, is facing its own moment of reckoning.

Citing the pandemic as a contributor, the society recently announced on its website that it was considering leaving River Farm, merging in some unspecified fashion with the American Public Gardens Association, and putting the prime piece of real estate on the market. This is a situation much in flux — the society’s board is said to be reevaluating its options after a backlash to the plan — but it is clear that the nonprofit is at some sort of existential crossroad.

Like other such organizations — in the United States, examples include the venerable Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society — the AHS was formed to guide and promote the plant and garden passions of its members. It puts out a glossy magazine, the American Gardener; has published garden books and encyclopedias; holds workshops and symposiums; and has organized travel study trips to gardens around the world. It was a pioneer in the children’s and youth garden movements. The property was once part of one of George Washington’s satellite farms and sits a few miles north of Washington’s Mount Vernon estate on the Virginia side of the Potomac River.

The announcement “took all of us in the community by surprise,” said Dan Storck, who represents the Mount Vernon district on the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors. “And that should never be the case for an organization that prominent in the community.”



Storck supports efforts to rethink the sale of the property and wants AHS to engage with the county and others to examine ways of saving River Farm as a public green space.

So far, the society is keeping quiet through this. Attempts to reach Bob Brackman, interim executive director, and Terry Hayes, chair of the board of directors, were unsuccessful.

It is tempting but perhaps futile to compare the AHS with the granddaddy of them all, Britain’s Royal Horticultural Society. Their respective size is so disparate as to be practically incomparable, but the RHS does at least demonstrate that an invention of the 19th century can still be a potent force for gardening, in

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Supply Chains Latest: U.S. Dairy Industry Faces Rough Future

America’s dairy farmers could face another price hit this year as a slowdown in government purchases combines with reduced demand from schools.

Dairy products have gotten a boost from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Farmers to Families Food Box program, which includes plans to buy as much as $4 billion worth of food to distribute to those in need. The government purchases have helped to send milk prices on a tear recently. But the program is slated to wind down, and concerns are rising over whether that rally will be sustainable.

Milk markets have already had a roller-coaster year. When coronavirus lockdowns went into place, dairy markets were among the hardest hit in the food world. It turns out, consumers eat a lot more cheese and butter when they’re dining out than they do at home. As restaurants shuttered, farmers were left with an overwhelming glut. Millions of pounds of milk got dumped.

But then governments stepped in and helped to rescue prices. In addition to the U.S. food program and a dairy bailout, the European Union and Australia also earmarked funds for the industry. That sent milk futures in Chicago soaring after touching a decade low in April.

Now, it looks like things could reverse again.

relates to Drying Up Government Aid Set to Rock U.S. Dairy Producers

U.S. government dairy purchases are set to dwindle by year’s end, dropping to 7.9 million pounds by December from 505.7 million pounds in September, according to StoneX Group Inc. estimates. That decline would remove a year’s worth of growth from the industry.

“The concern moving forward is as these government purchases slow — it looks like they’re going to slow dramatically after the election —commercial demand is going to be down,” said Nate Donnay, director of dairy market insight at StoneX. “Prices are going to fall again to try to slow down overall milk production and get it lined up with where real commercial demand is.”

At the same time, schools have gone virtual at least part of the time in many places. That means a lot fewer milk cartons are being gulped down in cafeterias. The same goes for fewer pieces of lunchtime pizza, grilled cheese sandwiches and other typical meals. Demand from schools typically represents about 6% of the market.

Declining fluid milk demand is the biggest impact from students not completely returning to school, which is bearish for the industry, said Alyssa Badger, director of global operations at HighGround Dairy in Chicago.

Justina Vasquez in New York

Charted Territory

Bleak British Harvest

The U.K. is reaping its smallest wheat crop in at least three decades, increasing reliance on imports just months before Brexit threatens to raise costs or disrupt flows into the country. British farmers were pummeled by a season of weather extremes, as record winter downpours cut plantings before spring dry spells then hurt young crops. That means the wheat harvest will probably slump 38% to 10.1 million tons, the smallest in data going back to 1984, the government estimates.

Today’s Must Reads

  • That’s a winner | The World Food Programme
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What is proposition 22? The ballot measure that could determine the future of Uber and Lyft in California

The ballot measure, known as Proposition 22, would establish drivers as an independent class of workers with access to limited job benefits, along with wage and worker protections they’ve so far lacked under the gig economy model. Labor groups and many of driver advocates say the companies’ efforts, however, do not go far enough to protect workers and are merely an attempt, cloaked in friendly marketing materials, to quash a new law that would guarantee drivers access to the minimum wage, employer-provided health care and bargaining rights.

Drawing on a more than $186 million campaign war chest that Uber, Lyft, food delivery app DoorDash and other tech companies have raised, they are seeking to convince California voters that the ballot initiative reflects the will of drivers. They’ve cited limited survey data saying the vast majority of drivers want to remain contractors.

But critics see the measure as a last-ditch effort to strong-arm a tough law.

The gig companies are following a long history in California of powerful groups “manipulating the way the public understands propositions,” said Veena Dubal, an associate professor at the University of California Hastings College of the Law, who focuses on the gig economy and is an advocate for classifying drivers as employees in California. “They are working to trick the public … into voting in favor of this. And they’re getting traction.”

The heated battle could well result in major implications for gig workers not just in California, but across the country.

Here’s what you need to know.

What is the current status of drivers?

In most of the country, drivers are independent contractors who are able to work for Uber, Lyft, DoorDash, Instacart and others on demand. That comes with pros such as flexibility. But it also means there are no guaranteed hours or health care.

The companies have thrived on their ability to rapidly scale up their services by contracting as many workers as possible for maximum convenience, connecting an Uber passenger with a driver around the corner, for example. But they also avoid major expenses associated with an established employee base.

In California, lawmakers and a major court ruling have now classified drivers as employees. (The ruling has been appealed and a stay has been granted in the meantime, allowing Uber and Lyft to keep operating as usual.)

The gig companies have argued that the new state law known as AB5 mandating them to convert drivers to employees would harm their business models and limit access to their services. And in Uber’s case, it has argued the law should not apply at all because as a technology firm it merely connects those in search of work with opportunities.

Their combined effort to oppose driver employment is the most expensive such proposition in history, the Los Angeles Times has said.

What is Prop 22?

California Proposition 22, the App-Based Drivers as Contractors and Labor Policies Initiative, is a measure that would classify drivers as independent contractors under California state law.

It would provide workers

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The government’s low-tech reputation hurts future innovators

The U.S. government has an image problem.

The idea that the government is a low-tech place where projects move slowly has chilled the willingness of lawmakers to fund ambitious, tech-driven projects within the government. And it’s stifled the movement of talented people into government service roles.

In a conversation at Fast Company‘s Innovation Festival Thursday, ex-Google CEO Eric Schmidt, Rhode Island governor Gina Raimondo, and Booz Allen Hamilton chief innovation officer Susan Penfield argued that the government needs to embark on a charm offensive to prove that big-time, game-changing innovation isn’t strictly confined to the private sector.

According to Penfield of Booz Allen Hamilton, the government doesn’t entirely deserve its low-tech reputation.

“There’s amazing work going on every day, and it really takes leadership . . . from the federal sector to really tout the things they’re doing,” Booz Allens’s Penfield said. “If you think about the government, they’re a research institute, they’re an insurance company, they’re protecting us here and abroad, and our national intelligence apparatus I can’t talk a lot about, but the things they’re doing today are amazing and absolutely innovative.”

Part of the problem is that the government undersells its own projects and people. “Michelle Obama said there’s no marketing in government—it’s true,” Penfield said. “So we need our government sector leaders to get out there and talk about the things they’re doing.”

Raimondo believes it may be more about showing than telling. “I think we have to continue to show people how their lives are better,” the governor said. “People will regain their faith in government over time if they see that things are improving.” On Raimondo’s watch, Rhode Island has aggressively funded and peopled tech projects that have retrofitted government systems.

The Trump Administration isn’t necessarily anti-tech, but some parts of the government still run on very old technology, a fact that’s apparent in the slowness with which the Treasury has distributed stimulus checks during the pandemic.

Schmidt believes that the government’s image problem may be hurting Silicon Valley in an indirect way. That’s because there’s a lack of support for government partnerships with universities and research facilities, and it’s in these places that the Googles and Amazons of tomorrow incubate. “Science funding as a percentage of GDP is below what it was in Sputnik times,” Schmidt said.

(To encourage young people to pursue careers in service, Schmidt and his wife, Wendi, have launched Rise, an initiative of Schmidt Futures and the Rhodes Trust. Applications for the program, aimed at students between the ages of 15 to 17 with a focus on those students in need of the resources and support, open this fall.)

Many of the technology advancements that people assume are the work of big private companies are really built on top of research that was funded by the government, he pointed out. Schmidt said the government needs to make the public aware of that fact.

“You like the GPS? That goes back to the university system that was originally funded

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Alex Drummond Says “Yes to the Dress” With Ree Drummond, Sister Paige, and Future Mother-in-Law By Her Side

Mint Images / Getty Images

Wedding bells are in the air for Ree and Ladd Drummond’s oldest child, Alex, and her now fiancé Mauricio Scott. While the pandemic has left the exact timeline for their nuptials up in the air—though the couple hopes to wed in spring of 2021—we’re happy to learn that Alex was able to enjoy a special day of wedding dress shopping in Dallas, Texas, this past weekend.

In classic Ree fashion, the proud mama chronicled the entire experience in a blog post over on ThePioneerWoman.com and we loved learning all the details about the joy-filled outing. For the appointment, Drummond joined her daughter Alex, along with her younger daughter Paige and Scott’s mom Martha at Warren Barrón Bridal.

“What made the shopping experience extra special is that Maurico’s mom Martha came along and joined us on the shopping trip. She just has her two boys, so Alex knew she would enjoy the wedding dress process. Martha is a gorgeous, kind person, and it’s been so wonderful getting to know her. We have fun together!” Drummond wrote in her recap of the experience, in which she also shared several photos.

“I can’t show you any more photos right now…but I can tell you that Alex found the perfect wedding dress, and we all loved it unanimously. It was (I believe) the fourth dress she tried on, and we knew almost instantly that it was the one,” she continued. So perfect was the dress in fact, that Alex cancelled the other two wedding dress appointments she originally had scheduled for the day. To sign off the celebratory play-by-play, Drummond concluded, “The wedding dress is beautiful, it’s perfect for Alex, and I can’t wait to show it to you. (Patience will be tough over the next few months!) It was nice to have a happy Saturday and look forward to the future!”

On social media, the bride-to-be also posted some photos from the day of wedding dress shopping with the simple caption, “I found my favorite dress ever today. @mauricioscott03 I can’t wait for you to see it!!!!”

In addition to the blog post, Drummond additionally expressed her excitement on Instagram, ending her caption with “It was so nice to look forward…to think ahead…and to imagine all the happy times ahead.”

WATCH: Mauricio Scott Popped the Question to Alex Drummond at This Dreamy Dallas Sculpture Garden

Mauricio Scott Popped the Question to Alex Drummond at This Dreamy Dallas Sculpture Garden

Ree Drummond shared all the sweet details of the couple’s proposal.

We’re so glad to hear Alex had a successful shopping experience. Indeed, during these tough times, the little magical moments seem that much bigger, and the bigger milestones seem all the more glorious.

Source Article

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UK Government Sees Future Energy Mix Involving Small Nuclear Reactors, But Financing Remains Obstacle


  • A  nine-member association of companies have pledged to build 16 small nuclear power stations by 2050
  • Each mini reactor would be in operation for up to 60 years and provide 440 megawatts of electricity per year
  • The program is expected to create 40,000 jobs.

The British government is considering investing 2 billion pounds sterling ($2.6 billion) to help build small nuclear reactors as part of London’s overall strategy of developing cleaner energy and achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.

The financing program – details of which have yet to be finalized, Bloomberg reported – would involve the government buying an equity stake in various new small nuclear stations across the country. Smaller reactors, as the government envisions, may be a more economical strategy to build up nuclear power in the country.

Indeed, a nine-member consortium of companies, including Rolls-Royce Holdings Plc and construction giant Laing O’Rourke Plc, have pledged to build 16 small nuclear power stations by 2050 on existing nuclear sites. This program is expected to create 40,000 jobs.

Each mini reactor would be in operation for up to 60 years and provide 440 megawatts of electricity per year — enough to power the city of Leeds (a city of 480,000 people), Financial Times reported.

The government’s funds “should deliver sufficient cash to get the consortium through building the factories and well on the way to construction of power stations prior to finding more money from other sources,” a source told FT.

“Nuclear power will play a key role in the U.K.’s future energy mix as we transition to a low-carbon economy, including through our investments in small and advanced modular reactors,” a spokesperson for the Prime Minister said.

The government’s initial investment would be part of the first tranche to construct five such small nuclear stations.

“There is a broad strategic commitment and the way in which the finance is arrived at and categorized are questions for further debate,” Energy Minister Kwsai Kwarteng said at the Conservative Party conference on Tuesday.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson is a big supporter of nuclear power and renewable energy. At the Conservative Party conference on Tuesday, he vowed the U.K. will become a “world leader in low-cost clean power generation.”

“Imagine that future – with high-skilled, green-collar jobs in wind, in solar, in nuclear, in hydrogen and in carbon capture and storage,” Johnson said.

The U.K. currently has just one large-scale new nuclear project in the pipeline – the Sizewell C plant in Suffolk, which is expected to be built by French utility Electricite de France SA, or EDF.

While the U.K. government said it is committed to nuclear energy, further plant construction will depend upon financing and eager investors.

“In Sizewell C we think we have the design, a supply chain and industry and what we need now is a funding model,” said Simone Rossi, chief executive officer of EDF’s U.K. subsidiary.

If EDF can secure a mix of government and private funding, it hopes to begin construction of

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The future of Jasper Pride Festival Society

The executive and board members of the Jasper Pride Festival Society (JPFS) were acclaimed at their annual general meeting on Sept. 30.

They reaffirmed their goal of creating a safe and inclusive atmosphere of equality, acceptance and support for the LGBTQ2+ communities.

“In past decades we’ve made leaps and bounds,” Nick Stadnyk, co-chair of the society, said. “We want to work with Pride organizations to raise issues of the LGBTQ2+ community.”

Stadnyk continues his position as co-chair, and a vacant co-chair position is open. Mallory Parcels is the treasurer, Lexi Zarney is secretary, Sasha Berrington is the Tourism Jasper representative, and Allison Snowball, Erin Steeves, Lynn Wannop and Erin Reade are all members at large.

Stadnyk said the JPFS, which started in 2010 and became a registered society with the province in 2013, is mainly the festival arm of events.

“JPFS plans, hosts and fundraises throughout the year to bring this festival and related events to our world-class destination in the Canadian Rockies,” he said.

There are 20 members in the society and the number of partners has grown annually. Now, there are more than 80 partners with corporate and organizations sponsoring Jasper Pride.

The society’s community partners include Out Jasper, Jasper Gay-Straight Alliance, Options HIV West Yellowhead, Fruit Loop Edmonton, Institute of Sexual Minority Studies and Edmonton Pride.

Each year, Jasper Pride Festival kicks off with an annual Pride Flag raising at the Emergency Services building – and the society’s signature event has been its annual Pride Party, a theme-based event.

Other annual events include burlesque and boylesque comedy shows, the Fruit Loop Mountain Party and Pride on the Hill, held at Marmot Basin.

“There’s always been something at that hill to celebrate the community and wear your Pride,“ Stadnyk said. ”In years past, we had a Gay Ski Day. We’re looking to elevate it to a weekend event.“

The society has also supported teen and family events such as Teen Dinner & Movie and Family Pride, an event with stories, songs and s’mores at the Fairmont. The festival is closed with an annual Pride brunch.

The support JPFS gives to community partners comes back to the society.

“Generally we see great support from the community, as evident by our growing number of local sponsors and partners,” said Stadnyk. “The number of commercial (and new residential in 2020) participants that decorate their storefronts and homes is incredible.”

Surveys conducted by the JPFS after their festivals, Stadnyk noted, “help us shape future festivals by providing insight as to what type of events and performers the public would like to see. Feedback also helps us understand how we have done and areas we can improve on to better ourselves”.

Advocacy for the LGBTQ2+ community is important, Stadnyk said.



“Love is love,” he said. “Pride provides an opportunity to celebrate the history of the LGBTQ2+ communities, struggles, successes and looking forward to a future of acceptance.

“The community of Jasper has overwhelming support to support our

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Knowledge from society and science for nature and the future

05.10.2020 13:39

Knowledge from society and science for nature and the future

The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, together with many partners, supported by the European Commission and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), is organizing an international conference to present, evaluate and discuss the contribution of civic science to the shaping and achievement of the United Nations’ global sustainability goals (Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs). The conference “Knowledge for Change: A Decade of Citizen Science (2020-2030) in support of the SDGs” is an official event of the German EU Council Presidency 2020 and will take place live at the Kulturbrauerei Berlin and online on October 14 & 15, 2020.

The SDGs are a UN proclaimed, knowledge-based goal for the whole world to fight hunger in a sustainable way and to protect health, the natural basis of life of all living beings, but also to protect culture and to achieve comprehensive social justice. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how the 17 SDGs are to be implemented. In addition, there is not enough data available in the various fields and at different levels to implement all SDGs equally on a global, national and local scale. The established suppliers of the data are increasingly coming up against limits.

Citizen Science is a relevant approach to implementing SDGs, to solving global challenges and thus contributing to economic competitiveness in Horizon Europe. Citizen Scientists are already profitably contributing to the increase of knowledge in various projects and disciplines, thus ensuring scientific growth. In order for real exchange between science and society to take place Citizen Scientists should communicate on equal terms with scientists. A prerequisite for this genuine science dialogue based on understanding is that science, society and politics open up to each other in order to achieve co-production of knowledge from society and science.

“Entirely new dynamics are created when the population is involved in the knowledge economy, if only to ask the right questions or to actively participate thematically on knowledge sites on the Internet and be heard, so to speak,” says Johannes Vogel, Director General of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and since 2014 Chairman of the European Citizen Science Association, Europe. “The challenge for science is to start a targeted dialogue with diverse stakeholders to explore possibilities, potential and ambitions. This should lead to a fascinating program of coproduction and knowledge exchange to support Europe’s Green Deal and to jointly address the world’s grande challenges.”

The conference makes it its task to network effective Citizen Science initiatives, to enlarge spheres of influence and to use potentials from networking. Insights from Citizen Science initiatives at global, national, regional and grassroots level are to be brought together. The conference will provide political contributions to current European developments, initiatives of the Open Science Strategy, the European Research Area (ERA) and Horizon 2020. Last but not least, the conference will inspire citizen science initiatives to intensify their work in the coming years.

A declaration is to be

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Seahawks’ Damien Lewis honors Andrew Sledd, his ‘future father-in-law’ and a police-brutality victim

The chef flew in from Chicago the day before the Seahawks’ first home game against the New England Patriots, landing in Seattle around 6 that Saturday night. About 28 hours later, Andrew Sledd completed his latest culinary masterwork: four pounds of Cajun fried chicken, a pot of collard greens, an overflowing pan of macaroni and cheese, Cajun cornbread stuffing and, for desert, peach cobbler.

Sledd and his wife Marie had come to Seattle for the first time at the behest of Seahawks rookie offensive lineman Damien Lewis, who grew accustomed to Sledd’s cooking after his college games the past couple years at LSU. Lewis wanted that tradition to continue in Seattle. The Sledds were happy to oblige — and happy for an excuse to visit their 4-month-old grandson, Damien Lewis Jr., the first child for Savannah Sledd and Damien Lewis.

The family watched on a 70-inch TV as the Seahawks pulled off a last-second victory over New England, then waited for Lewis to get home. Then they feasted.

“Oh, it was nice,” Lewis said of the spread. “We had to do it the South way — ain’t too much soul food around here.”

For the Seahawks’ next game, Lewis came up with a way to show his appreciation for his future father-in-law, “Mr. Sledd,” as Lewis has insisted on calling him. The NFL gave formal approval of the gesture, and there it was on the back of Lewis’ helmet Sunday against the Dallas Cowboys:


The NFL has granted players permission to honor victims of police brutality and racial injustice this season. Many Seahawks players, Lewis included, began the season with Breonna Taylor’s name on their helmets. Lewis has a personal connection with someone he wanted to share, and he’s offering a hand — and a helmet — to help spread the message.

Sledd, a Chicago native whose mother is Black and father is white, was a 24-year-old basketball player at St. Xavier College when in 1989 he became a victim of police brutality. He is sharing his story in detail now, for the first time publicly, in hopes of continuing the conversation around racial injustices. He said he feels an obligation to speak for those victims — for Breonna Taylor, for George Floyd, for Jacob Blake and for the many Black victims before him — who cannot speak for themselves.

“I’m one of the lucky ones,” Sledd said.


The first bullet grazed the top of Sledd’s head. The next one almost killed him.

Officer Elroy Baker was firing his 9 mm gun over his shoulder, blindly shooting as he ran down a flight of 20 stairs. Baker, who was African-American, was one of seven Chicago police officers executing a search warrant at Sledd’s family residence around 10:30 p.m. on March 31, 1989, court records show. The narcotics team was looking for a man who didn’t live there and had no association with Sledd or his family. Officers were not wearing uniforms, they did not announce who they

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Big Tech hearing gives clues on future of antitrust law

In the last of seven hearings to investigate concerns that Google parent Alphabet (GOOG, GOOGL), Facebook (FB), Amazon (AMZN) and Apple (AAPL) are operating as illegal monopolies, witnesses before the House Antitrust Subcommittee Thursday clashed on whether Congress should overhaul U.S. antitrust law.

Proposals from witnesses before the committee, including several antitrust experts, could be a clue to changes forthcoming from the committee. They ranged from introducing legislation that would break up Big Tech companies and overturn judicial precedent to increased funding for antitrust law enforcers to maintaining status quo. 

‘Quintessentially a congressional job’

Zephyr Teachout, associate professor of law at Fordham University School of Law, told the subcommittee on Thursday that Congress, not the Supreme Court, should regulate Big Tech. “It is quintessentially a congressional job to respond to this threat,” Teachout said, calling for “significant” new legislation.

NEW YORK, NY, UNITED STATES - 2018/09/13: Zephyr Teachout seen speaking on phone during her campaign for Attorney General. (Photo by Michael Brochstein/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY, UNITED STATES – 2018/09/13: Zephyr Teachout seen speaking on phone during her campaign for Attorney General. (Photo by Michael Brochstein/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

Michael Kades, director of markets and competition policy for Washington Center for Equitable Growth, also called for legislative reform, arguing that the filing of one or two cases would fall short of addressing the current level of anticompetitive conduct.

“Unless Congress acts it is accepting…that antitrust laws have little power to stop or deter anticompetitive conduct,” Kades said.

When acting to regulate Big Tech, Teachout argued, Congress should limit certain large companies to a single line of business, preventing Amazon, for example, from controlling businesses for online commerce while also controlling shipping and fulfillment. The approach would similarly impact Google’s ability to control platforms that both serve and sell online advertisements.

“Amazon takes as much as 30% of every sale,” Teachout said about seller transactions on the marketplace. “This is essentially a form of private tax…and that’s really dangerous for democracy.”

University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School professor Christopher Yoo disagreed with this notion, arguing that restricting companies to a single line of business would cut against a central purpose of antitrust laws: to protect consumers. Dismantling the efficiencies of Amazon’s vertical integration, he said, would lead to higher consumer prices.

More modest proposals to change antitrust law

Meanwhile, William Baer, visiting fellow for governance studies at Brookings Institution, proposed “modest” changes to antitrust laws — including altering the legal standard of proof required for the government to prevail on antitrust actions. The standard, he said, is problematic because it often dissuades the Justice Department from challenging mergers or acquisitions, such as Google’s purchase of ad platform DoubleClick in 2007 and Facebook’s acquisition of photo-sharing site Instagram in 2012.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos testifies before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law during a hearing on "Online Platforms and Market Power" in the Rayburn House office Building on Capitol Hill, in Washington, U.S., July 29, 2020. Mandel Ngan/Pool via REUTERS
Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos testifies before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law during a hearing on “Online Platforms and Market Power” in the Rayburn House office Building on Capitol Hill, in Washington, U.S., July 29, 2020. Mandel Ngan/Pool via REUTERS

“Many courts demand a level of proof that is often unattainable that chills enforcement and limits our ability to

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